As a political leader, he has never wavered in his devotion to the party and the nation. He was imprisoned at several stages of his action-packed political life. After 1975, he was imprisoned for an uninterrupted two and a half years. While in prison, he was elected as the President of the Central Committee of Bangladesh Chhatra League (the student wing of Bangladesh Awami League), and he remained so for two consecutive terms.
Mr. Obaidul Quader was a member of the Executive Committee formed to celebrate the Bengali Year 1400. He was also the member-secretary of the committee for celebrating the silver jubilee of the Liberation War and Independence.
Mr. Obaidul Quader was elected as a Member of Parliament from the constituency Noakhali-5 in the 7th parliamentary elections of June 12, 1996. On June 23, 1996 he was appointed as the State Minister for Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs. He carried out his responsibilities with utmost honesty and sincerity till July 15, 2001. He is the member of Standing Committee and Parliamentary Board, Local Government/ Pourashova and Union Parishad Nomination Bord of Bangladesh Awami League. He was elected General Secretary of Bangladesh Awami Leage in 20th National Council held in 22-23 October 2016 for the session 2016-2019.
He served as the Secretary of Cultural Affairs and Education of the Central Executive Committee of Bangladesh Awami League from June 23, 2000 to December 26, 2002. He was elected first Senior Joint General Secretary of Bangladesh Awami League from December 26, 2002 to July 26, 2009. While serving Bangladesh Awami League as the Joint General Secretary during the tenure of post 1/11 Caretaker Government, he was arrested on March 09, 2007 and remained in prison for 17 months and 26 days.
Mr. Obaidul Quader was seriously wounded by the grisly grenade attack on August 21, 2004. He was admitted into the Apollo Hospital in Delhi where doctors removed about 80 splinters from his body. While he was in prison in the aftermath of 1/11, he became almost paralyzed on the right side due to the remaining splinters in his body. Later on, 14 more splinters were removed in his body from the same Hospital. Though he is in good health now, there are still 18 splinters left in his body.
On November 2011 he took oath as Minister of the Government. On 5th December Honorable Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina assigned him with the responsibility of the Communication Ministry. He had discharged his responsibility as Minister for Ministry of Communication with great devotion, patriotism, integrity, acumen and as a benevolent political leader. In his tenure he visited 64 districts of Bangladesh and enhanced the image and performance of the Communication Ministry a lot. He also continued as the Minister for Communication during All Party Government from 21st November 2013 to 12th January 2014.
Mr. Obaidul Quader elected as a Member of Parliament on 5th January 2014 from the constituency Noakhali-5 for the third time in the 10th Parliamentary Election and took oath on 12th January 2014 for the second time as the Minister, Ministry of Communication (Presently known as Ministry of Road Transport and Bridges).